The effect of long and short head biceps loading on glenohumeral joint rotational range of motion and humeral head position

Michelle H. McGarry, Michael L. Nguyen, Ryan J. Quigley, Bryan Hanypsiak, Ranjan Gupta, Thay Q. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of loading the long and short heads of the biceps on glenohumeral range of motion and humeral head position. Methods: Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested in 60° abduction in the scapula and coronal plane. Muscle loading was applied based on cross-sectional area ratios. The short and long head of the biceps were loaded individually followed by combined loading. Range of motion was measured with 2.2 Nm torque, and the humeral head apex position was measured using a MicroScribe. A paired t test with Bonferroni correction was used for statistics. Results: Long head loading decreased internal rotation in both the scapular (17.9 %) and coronal planes (5.7 %) and external rotation in the scapular plane (2.6 %) (P < 0.04). With only short head loading, maximum internal rotation was significantly increased in the scapular and coronal plane. Long head and short head loading shifted the humeral head apex posteriorly in maximum internal rotation in both planes with the long head shift being significantly greater than the short head. Long head loading also shifted the humeral apex inferiorly in internal rotation and inferiorly posteriorly in neutral rotation in the scapular plane. With the long head unloaded, there was a significant superior shift with short head loading in both planes. Conclusion: Loading the long head of the biceps had a much greater effect on glenohumeral range of motion and humeral head shift than the short head of the biceps; however, in the absence of long head loading, with the short head loaded, maximum internal rotation increases and the humeral head shifts superiorly, which may contribute to impingement following tenodesis of the long head of the biceps. These small changes in rotational range of motion and humeral head position with biceps tenodesis may not lead to pathologic conditions in low-demand patients; however, in throwers, biceps tenodesis may lead to increased contact pressures in late-cocking and deceleration that will likely translate to decreased performance therefore every effort should be made to preserve the biceps-labral complex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1979-1987
Number of pages9
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Volume24
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2016

Keywords

  • Cadaver study
  • Glenohumeral joint
  • Humeral head shift
  • Long head biceps
  • Range of motion
  • Short head biceps

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