The effect of doxapram on brain imaging in patients with panic disorder

Amir Garakani, Monte S. Buchsbaum, Randall E. Newmark, Chelain Goodman, Cindy J. Aaronson, Jose M. Martinez, Yuliya Torosjan, King Wai Chu, Jack M. Gorman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Administration of doxapram hydrochloride, a respiratory stimulant, is experienced by panic disorder patients to be similar to panic attacks but has reduced emotional effect in normal volunteers, thus providing a laboratory model of panic for functional imaging. Six panic patients and seven normal control subjects underwent positron emission tomography with 18F-deoxyglucose imaging after a single-blinded administration of either doxapram or a placebo saline solution. Saline and doxapram were administered on separate days in counterbalanced order. Patients showed a greater heart rate increase on doxapram relative to saline than controls, indicating differential response. On the saline placebo day, patients had greater prefrontal relative activity than controls. In response to doxapram, patients tended to decrease prefrontal activity more than controls, and increased cingulate gyrus and amygdala activity more than controls. This suggests that panic disorder patients activate frontal inhibitory centers less than controls, a tendency that may lower the threshold for panic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)672-686
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2007


  • Amygdala
  • Doxapram
  • Neuroimaging
  • PET
  • Panic
  • Prefrontal cortex


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