The Distal Spine: Normal Embryogenesis and Derangements Leading to Malformation

Thomas P. Naidich, Javin Schefflein, Mario A. Cedillo, Jacob P. Deutsch, Shashidhara Murthy, Mary Fowkes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The spine and spinal cord are composed of multiple segments initiated by different embryologic mechanisms and advanced under different systems of control. In humans, the upper central nervous system is formed by primary neurulation, the lower by secondary neurulation, and the intervening segment by junctional neurulation. This article focuses on the distal spine and spinal cord to address their embryogenesis and the molecular derangements that lead to some distal spinal malformations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-409
Number of pages25
JournalNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • Axis extension
  • Junctional neurulation
  • Somitogenesis
  • Spinal column
  • Spinal cord
  • Spinal embryogenesis
  • Spinal malformations


Dive into the research topics of 'The Distal Spine: Normal Embryogenesis and Derangements Leading to Malformation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this