The complement system and C1q in chronic hepatitis C virus infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia

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18 Scopus citations


The complement system bridges innate and adaptive immunity against microbial infections, with viral infection being a major trigger. Activation of the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways have been reported in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and/or cryoglobulinemia. HCV infection leads to dysregulation of complement-mediated immune responses. Clinical and experimental evidence support involvement of complement in intra- and extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, such as liver fibrosis and type II cryoglobulinemia. In this review, we summarize studies that have investigated the interplay between HCV and the complement system to establish chronic infection and autoimmunity, as well as the association between HCV pathogenesis and abnormal complement profiles. Several unanswered questions are highlighted which suggest additional informative lines of investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1001
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Issue numberMAY
StatePublished - 29 May 2018


  • C1q
  • Complement
  • GC1qR
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Liver
  • Mixed cryoglobulinemia


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