Background: Air pollution and noise exposures individually associate with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) via a mechanism involving arterial inflammation (ArtI); however, their combined impact on ArtI and MACE remains unknown. We tested whether dual (vs. one or neither) exposure associates with greater ArtI and MACE risk and whether MACE risk is mediated via ArtI. Methods: Individuals (N = 474) without active cancer or known cardiovascular disease with clinical 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging were followed for 5 years for MACE. ArtI was measured. Average air pollution (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM2.5) and transportation noise exposure were determined at individual residences. Higher exposures were defined as noise > 55 dBA (World Health Organization cutoff) and PM2.5 ≥ sample median. Results: At baseline, 46%, 46%, and 8% were exposed to high levels of neither, one, or both pollutants; 39 experienced MACE over a median 4.1 years. Exposure to an increasing number of pollutants associated with higher ArtI (standardized β [95% CI:.195 [.052,.339], P = .008) and MACE (HR [95% CI]: 2.897 [1.818–4.615], P < .001). In path analysis, ArtI partially mediated the relationship between pollutant exposures and MACE (P < .05). Conclusion: Air pollution and transportation noise exposures contribute incrementally to ArtI and MACE. The mechanism linking dual exposure to MACE involves ArtI.
- Air pollution
- arterial inflammation
- transportation noise pollution