Caspase-1 is an essential effector of inflammation, pyroptosis, and septic shock. Few caspase-1 substrates have been identified to date, and these substrates do not account for its wide range of actions. To understand the function of caspase-1, we initiated the systematic identification of its cellular substrates. Using the diagonal gel proteomic approach, we identified 41 proteins that are directly cleaved by caspase-1. Among these were chaperones, cytoskeletal and translation machinery proteins, and proteins involved in immunity. A series of unexpected proteins along the glycolysis pathway were also identified, including aldolase, triose-phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-enolase, and pyruvate kinase. With the exception of the latter, the identified glycolysis enzymes were specifically cleaved in vitro by recombinant caspase-1, but not caspase-3. The enzymatic activity of wild-type glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, but not a non-cleavable mutant, was dampened by caspase-1 processing. In vivo, stimuli that fully activated caspase-1, including Salmonella typhimurium infection and septic shock, caused a pronounced processing of these proteins in the macrophage and diaphragm muscle, respectively. Notably, these stimuli inhibited glycolysis in wild-type cells compared with caspase-1-deficient cells. The systematic characterization of caspase-1 substrates identifies the glycolysis pathway as a caspase-1 target and provides new insights into its function during pyroptosis and septic shock.