The Cardiac Manifestations of Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Their Echocardiographic Recognition

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Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, hypercoagulability, vascular thrombosis, and recurrent fetal loss. Cardiac involvement occurs frequently. Leaflet thickening and vegetations are detected quite often echocardiographically, but hemodynamically significant stenotic and/or regurgitant valvular disease is uncommon. Antiphospholipid syndrome can also cause left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction as well as pulmonary hypertension. Other findings include spontaneous echo contrast and in situ mural thrombosis. In this review, the author discusses the major cardiac manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome and highlights the role of echocardiography in their detection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1100-1108
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2009


  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Echocardiography
  • Libman-Sacks endocarditis
  • Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis


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