Purpose of reviewAsthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Investigations of the lower and upper airway microbiomes have significantly progressed over recent years, and their roles in pediatric asthma are becoming increasingly clear.Recent findingsEarly studies identified the existence of upper and lower airway microbiomes, including imbalances in both associated with pediatric asthma. The infant airway microbiome may offer predictive value for the development of asthma in later childhood, and it may also be influenced by external factors such as respiratory viral illness. The airway microbiome has also been associated with the clinical course of asthma, including rates of exacerbation and level of control. Advances in -omics sciences have enabled improved identification of the airway microbiome's relationships with host response and function in children with asthma. Investigations are now moving toward the application of the above findings to explore risk modification and treatment options.SummaryThe airway microbiome provides an intriguing window into pediatric asthma, offering insights into asthma diagnosis, clinical course, and perhaps treatment. Further investigation is needed to solidify these associations and translate research findings into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)639-647
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Opinion in Pediatrics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • asthma
  • lower airways
  • microbiome
  • pediatric
  • upper airways


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