Tetralogy of Fallot

Shubhika Srivastava, Wyman W. Lai, Ira A. Parness

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Survival of patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)-the most common cyanotic heart defect- has improved dramatically in the past decades. Echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for diagnosing TOF and is crucial for anatomic and functional assessments before and after therapeutic interventions. Following a review of the developmental and genetic aspects of TOF, this chapter discusses the morphology in detail. This is followed by a section on the preoperative examination protocol, which is organized by acoustic windows and then by structures that must be evaluated. The intraoperative and postoperative examinations are then reviewed. A section on imaging adults with TOF is included, with a discussion on assessment during transcatheter management, which is followed by a section on prenatal assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEchocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Fetus to Adult: Second Edition
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9781118742440
ISBN (Print)9780470674642
StatePublished - 19 Jan 2016


  • Absent pulmonary valve
  • Conal septum
  • Conoventricular
  • Malalignment
  • Overriding aorta
  • Pulmonary atresia
  • Pulmonary regurgitation
  • Pulmonary stenosis
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Ventricular septal defect


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