Biological treatments, surgical interventions, and rehabilitation exercises have been successfully used to treat tendinopathy, but the development of effective treatments has been hindered by the lack of mechanistic data regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. While insightful, clinical studies are limited in their capacity to provide data regarding the pathogenesis of tendinopathies, emphasizing the value of animal models and cell culture studies to fill this essential gap in knowledge. Clinical pathological findings from imaging studies or histological analysis are not universal across patients with tendinopathy and have not been clearly associated with the onset of symptoms. There are several unresolved controversies, including the cellular changes that accompany the tendinopathic disease state and the role of inflammation. Additional research is needed to correlate the manifestations of the disease with its pathogenesis, with the goal of reaching a field-wide consensus on the pathology of the disease state. Such a consensus will allow standardized clinical practices to more effectively diagnose and treat tendinopathy.