Temporal trends of COVID-19 antibodies in vaccinated healthcare workers undergoing repeated serological sampling: An individual-level analysis within 13 months in the ORCHESTRA cohort

Giulia Collatuzzo, Giuseppe De Palma, Francesco S. Violante, Stefano Porru, Francesca Larese Filon, Eleonora Fabianova, Concepción Violán, Luigi Vimercati, Mihaela Leustean, Marta Maria Rodriguez-Suarez, Emanuele Sansone, Emma Sala, Carlotta Zunarelli, Vittorio Lodi, Maria Grazia Lourdes Monaco, Gianluca Spiteri, Corrado Negro, Jana Beresova, LucÌa A. Carrasco-Ribelles, Silvio TafuriShuffield S. Asafo, Giorgia Ditano, Mahsa Abedini, Paolo Boffetta

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Abstract

Short summary: We investigated changes in serologic measurements after COVID-19 vaccination in 19,422 subjects. An individual-level analysis was performed on standardized measurements. Age, infection, vaccine doses, time between doses and serologies, and vaccine type were associated with changes in serologic levels within 13 months. Background: Persistence of vaccine immunization is key for COVID-19 prevention. Methods: We investigated the difference between two serologic measurements of anti-COVID-19 S1 antibodies in an individual-level analysis on 19,422 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW) from Italy, Spain, Romania, and Slovakia, tested within 13 months from first dose. Differences in serologic levels were divided by the standard error of the cohort-specific distribution, obtaining standardized measurements. We fitted multivariate linear regression models to identify predictors of difference between two measurements. Results: We observed a progressively decreasing difference in serologic levels from <30 days to 210–240 days. Age was associated with an increased difference in serologic levels. There was a greater difference between the two serologic measurements in infected HCW than in HCW who had never been infected; before the first measurement, infected HCW had a relative risk (RR) of 0.81 for one standard deviation in the difference [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78–0.85]. The RRs for a 30-day increase in time between first dose and first serology, and between the two serologies, were 1.08 (95% CI 1.07–1.10) and 1.04 (95% CI 1.03–1.05), respectively. The first measurement was a strong predictor of subsequent antibody decrease (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.56–1.64). Compared with Comirnaty, Spikevax (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75–0.92) and mixed vaccines (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.51–0.74) were smaller decrease in serological level (RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.40–0.54). Conclusions: Age, COVID-19 infection, number of doses, time between first dose and first serology, time between serologies, and type of vaccine were associated with differences between the two serologic measurements within a 13-month period.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1079884
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume13
DOIs
StatePublished - 11 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19 vaccination
  • antibodies
  • health care workers
  • serial serology
  • temporal trends

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