Temporal self and reflected appraisals in euthymic and depressed individuals

Yosef Sokol, Chynna Levin, Chayim Rosensweig, Nahal Talasazan, Mark R. Serper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Temporal self-appraisal (TSA) theory, reflected appraisal theory, and their clinical applications have previously been explored as independent constructs. This study investigates how TSA corresponds to temporal reflected appraisal (TRA), and how the relationship between them differs in the presence of depression. Methods: 273 adults (57 % female), recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk, filled out a series of measures of mood and self-appraisal assessments (TSA and TRA versions of the Me/Not Me task). Repeated measures MANOVAs were used to assess between group differences. Results: The TSA trajectory of depressed individuals replicated the ‘V' shape found in previous research, whereas the TRA of depressed individuals did not decline from past to present. There was little difference between TSA and TRA “past” and “future” appraisals, though there was a significant difference in appraisal of the “present.” Individuals with depression believe that others perceive them as doing much better currently than the way they view themselves. By contrast, euthymic individuals had no significant differences between the TSA and TRA appraisals of their present selves, indicating they think their self-perception matches how others view them. Limitations: We assessed depression using online self-reports. Cross-sectional data limits causality determination but suffices for studying mood-related self-perceptions over time. Conclusions: Temporal self-appraisal and temporal reflected appraisal have varying relationships among euthymic and depressed individuals. This more precise characterization of depressed individuals' identity can further aid clinicians in understanding the nature of identity development and treating identity disruption among depressed individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-347
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
StatePublished - 14 Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


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