BACKGROUND: Perianal high-grade dysplasia (Bowen disease) is traditionally treated with mapping and wide excision with possible grafting rather than local ablation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the results of high-grade perianal dysplasia ablation. DATA SOURCES: Data for this study were derived from a retrospective chart review at a surgical practice screening and treating patients for high-grade dysplasia between July 1998 and June 2013. STUDY SELECTION: The patients included were men who have sex with men and are undergoing perianal dysplasia ablation. INTERVENTION: Ablation of perianal dysplasia with electrocautery, laser, or infrared coagulation was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were the recurrence of perianal dysplasia postablation and factors affecting recurrence. RESULTS: Seventy HIV-positive and 11 HIV-negative patients enrolled; the median ages were 44.7 and 42.8 years. Median follow-up times for HIV-positive and HIVnegative patients were 4.62 and 3.53 years, and the median numbers of treatments were 4 and 1, p = 0.004. The median number of lesions treated was 1 for both groups. Only 1 HIV-negative patient had a recurrence 8 months after treatment. For HIV-positive patients, the Kaplan-Meier probability of recurrence at 1, 3, and 5 years was 38% (95% CI 26-50), 59% (95% CI 47-72), and 68% (95% CI 55-81) after the first ablation with no difference for subsequent treatments. HIV-positive patients had a relative risk of perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of 3.72 (95% CI 2.10-6.60) compared with HIV-negative patients (p ≤ 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, only each increase in intra-anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions significantly increased recurrence (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.28, p = 0.002). Only 3 patients with perianal highgrade squamous intraepithelial lesions did not have canal dysplasia. Perianal cancer developed in 3 after being lost to follow-up. LIMITATIONS: This is a retrospective analysis of 1 experienced surgeon's results. No precise way exists to accurately determine the size of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Perianal dysplasia can be successfully ablated, but recurrence remains high. Almost all patients have anal canal dysplasia. HIV-positive patients are at the greatest risk for disease and recurrence. An increased number of high-grade canal lesions increases recurrence.
- Anal cancer
- Bowen disease
- High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions
- Human papillomavirus