Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: Current treatment

John E. Madias

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Management of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is currently empirical and supportive, via extrapolation of therapeutic principles worked out for other cardiovascular pathologies. Although it has been emphasized that such non-specific therapies for TTS are consequent to its still elusive pathophysiology, one wonders whether it does not necessarily follow that the absence of knowledge of TTS’ pathophysiological underpinnings should prevent us for searching, designing, or even finding, therapies efficacious for its management. Additionally, it is conceivable that therapy for TTS may be in response to pathophysiological/pathoanatomic/pathohistological consequences (e.g., “myocardial stunning/reperfusion injury), common to both TTS and coronary artery disease, or other cardiovascular disorders). The present review outlines the whole range of management principles of TTS during its acute phase and at follow-up, including considerations pertaining to the recurrence of TTS, and commences with the idea that occasionally management of TTS should consist of mere observation along the “first do no harm” principle, while self-healing is under way. Finally, some new therapeutic hypotheses (i.e., large doses of insulin infusions in association with the employment of intravenous short-and ultrashort-acting β-blockers) are being entertained, based on previous extensive animal work and limited application in patients with neurogenic cardiomyopathy and TTS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3440
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number15
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
  • Takotsubo syndrome
  • Therapy of takotsubo cardiomyopathy
  • Therapy of takotsubo syndrome


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