The prostanoids are commonly used in the treatment of glaucoma. They have been shown to effectively reduce intraocular pressure with a relatively benign side-effect profile. Tafluprost is the newest member of the prostanoid family used in the treatment of glaucoma, and it is also the first prostanoid to be released in a preservative-free formulation. Early data suggest that it is as effective as the other prostanoids. The objective of this article is to detail the development and subsequent early testing of tafluprost.