TAC-TIC use of tacrolimus-based regimens in lupus nephritis

Tineke Kraaij, Obbo W. Bredewold, Stella Trompet, Tom W.J. Huizinga, Ton J. Rabelink, Anton J.M. De Craen, Y. K.Onno Teng

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19 Scopus citations


Current guidelines do not mention tacrolimus (TAC) as a treatment option and no consensus has been reported on the role of TAC in lupus nephritis (LN). The present study aimed to guide clinical judgement on the use of TAC in patients with LN. A meta-analysis was performed for clinical studies investigating TAC regimens in LN on the basis of treatment target (induction or maintenance), concomitant immunosuppression and quality of the data. 23 clinical studies performed in patients with LN were identified: 6 case series, 9 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies and 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 6 RCTs, 5 RCTs investigated TAC regimens as induction treatment and 1 RCT as maintenance treatment. Five RCTs investigated TAC in combination with steroids and 2 TAC with mycophenolate plus steroids. All RCTs were performed in patients of Asian ethnicity. In a meta-analysis, TAC regimens achieved a significantly higher total response (relative risk (RR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.34, p<0.05) and significantly higher complete response (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.77, p<0.05). The positive outcome was predominantly defined by the largest RCT investigating TAC with mycophenolate plus steroids. Regarding safety, the occurrence of leucopoenia was significantly lower, while the occurrence of increased creatine was higher. Clinical studies on TAC regimens for LN are limited to patients of Asian ethnicity and hampered by significant heterogeneity. The positive results on clinical efficacy of TAC as induction treatment in LN cannot be extrapolated beyond Asian patients with LN. Therefore, further confirmation in multiethnic, randomised trials is mandatory. Until then, TAC can be considered in selected patients with LN.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000169
JournalLupus Science and Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2016
Externally publishedYes


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