Systematic review of squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder

Hideo Takahashi, Aiswarya Irri, Yaniv Fenig, Anjali Byale, Swan Thung, Ganesh Gunasekaran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Although gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract malignancy, squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBSCC) is extremely uncommon, comprising approximately 1–4% of all malignant gallbladder tumors. Given its rare incidence, there are currently no established treatment guidelines for GBSCC. Methods: We reviewed the current data available through a comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase. Results: Although the clinical presentations of GBSCC and gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBAC) are similar, GBSCCs are oftentimes larger and present with a higher histologic grade and more advanced pathological stage. Due to these aggressive features, the overall prognosis of GBSCC is significantly worse than GBAC, even after R0 resection. Conclusion: A combination of radical cholecystectomy with negative surgical margins along with systemic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy appears to be the best treatment strategy based on the current limited literature. Mutational profiling using next-generation sequencing (NGS) can help clinicians identify and treat actionable mutations of this rare tumor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)863-868
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Gallbladder cancer
  • Review
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder


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