Systematic review of site distribution of bone metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer

Marcela Osorio, Sami P. Moubayed, Henry Su, Mark L. Urken

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Background: Thyroid cancer is the fastest growing cancer in the United States. A small portion of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs; 2% to 13%) develop bone metastases, which can decrease a patient's survival rate by more than 60%. Methods: A systematic literature search of studies, including patients with DTC with bone metastases, was conducted by following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A case series of patients with DTC diagnosed with bone metastases seen at our institution was also included. Results: A total of 616 bone metastases sites in 317 patients were identified in 14 case series. Ten patients were identified in our institutional case series. The most common sites of metastases are spine (34.6%), pelvis (25.5%), sternum and ribs (18.3%), extremities (10.2%), shoulder girdle (5.4%), and craniomaxillofacial (5.4%). Conclusion: The axial skeleton is the primary target of bone metastases in DTC. The relative distribution of bone metastases and red marrow content follow a similar rank.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)812-818
Number of pages7
JournalHead and Neck
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • bone
  • neoplasm metastasis
  • papillary thyroid carcinoma
  • thyroid cancer
  • thyroid neoplasms


Dive into the research topics of 'Systematic review of site distribution of bone metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this