Objective: To compare standard anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) for postoperative seizure control in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Embase using Medical Subject Headings and keywords related to ATL and SAH. We included original research that directly compared seizure outcomes in patients undergoing SAH or ATL for TLE. A fixed-effect model was used to derive a pooled risk ratio (RR) for either an Engel Class I (free of disabling seizures) or a composite of an Engel Class I and II (rare disabling seizures) outcome. Results: Of 4,675 abstracts initially identified by the search, 65 were reviewed as full text. Thirteen studies containing data from8 countries (5 continents)met our inclusion criteria. Eleven studies comprising 1,203 patients demonstrated that participants were statisticallymore likely to achieve an Engel Class I outcome after ATL compared with SAH (risk ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.57; p < 0.01). The summary risk difference of 8% (95% CI 3%-14%) translates to a number needed to treat of 13 (95% CI 7-33) for 1 additional patient to achieve an Engel Class I outcome after ATL. The result remained significant when 2 studies that contained fewer than 15 participants in at least 1 arm were excluded and in analyses restricted to hippocampal sclerosis. Conclusions: Standard ATL confers an improved chance of achieving freedomfrom disabling seizures in patients with TLE. Improved seizure freedom must be balanced against the neuropsychological impact of each procedure. A randomized controlled trial is justified.