Aims: We aimed to evaluate the contemporary prevalence of and risk factors for symptomatic diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) in participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D) enrolled in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. Methods: DAN symptoms and severity were assessed with the Survey of Autonomic Symptoms (SAS) in adults with ≥5 years of T1D participating in the T1D Exchange from years 2010–2017. Associations of demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors with symptomatic DAN were assessed. Results: Of the 4919 eligible T1D participants, 965 (20%) individuals completed the SAS questionnaire [mean age 40 ± 17 years, median diabetes duration 20 years (IQR: 13,34), 64% female, 90% non-Hispanic White, and 82% with private insurance]. DAN symptoms were present in 166 (17%) of responders with 72% experiencing moderate severity symptoms or worse. Symptomatic DAN participants had higher hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.03), longer duration (p = 0.004), were more likely to be female (p = 0.03), and more likely to have lower income (p = 0.03) versus no DAN symptoms. Symptomatic DAN was associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (p < 0.0001), smoking (p = 0.002), cardiovascular disease (p = 0.02), depression (p < 0.001), and opioid use (p = 0.004). Conclusions: DAN symptoms are common in T1D. Socioeconomic factors and psychological comorbidities may contribute to DAN symptoms and should be explored further.
- Autonomic neuropathy
- Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 1 diabetes exchange registry