Symptomatic diabetic autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes (T1D): Findings from the T1D exchange

T1D Exchange Clinic Network

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2 Scopus citations


Aims: We aimed to evaluate the contemporary prevalence of and risk factors for symptomatic diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) in participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D) enrolled in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. Methods: DAN symptoms and severity were assessed with the Survey of Autonomic Symptoms (SAS) in adults with ≥5 years of T1D participating in the T1D Exchange from years 2010–2017. Associations of demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors with symptomatic DAN were assessed. Results: Of the 4919 eligible T1D participants, 965 (20%) individuals completed the SAS questionnaire [mean age 40 ± 17 years, median diabetes duration 20 years (IQR: 13,34), 64% female, 90% non-Hispanic White, and 82% with private insurance]. DAN symptoms were present in 166 (17%) of responders with 72% experiencing moderate severity symptoms or worse. Symptomatic DAN participants had higher hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.03), longer duration (p = 0.004), were more likely to be female (p = 0.03), and more likely to have lower income (p = 0.03) versus no DAN symptoms. Symptomatic DAN was associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (p < 0.0001), smoking (p = 0.002), cardiovascular disease (p = 0.02), depression (p < 0.001), and opioid use (p = 0.004). Conclusions: DAN symptoms are common in T1D. Socioeconomic factors and psychological comorbidities may contribute to DAN symptoms and should be explored further.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108148
JournalJournal of Diabetes and its Complications
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Autonomic neuropathy
  • Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 1 diabetes exchange registry


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