Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by α1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin via induction of apoptosis

N. Kyprianou, C. M. Benning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recent evidence from our laboratory has demonstrated that α1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin induced apoptosis in prostate epithelial and smooth muscle cells in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; J. Urol., 159: 1810-1815, 1998; J. Urol., 161: 2002-2007, 1999). In this study, we investigated the biological action of three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin, against prostate cancer cell growth. The antigrowth effect of the three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists was examined in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, and a prostate smooth muscle cell primary culture, SMC-1, on the basis of: (a) cell viability assay; (b) rate of DNA synthesis; and (c) induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that treatment of prostate cancer cells with doxazosin or terazosin results in a significant loss of cell viability, via induction of apoptosis in a dosedependent manner, whereas tamsulosin had no effect on prostate cell growth. Neither doxazosin nor terazosin exerted a significant effect on the rate of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Exposure to phenoxybenzamine, an irreversible inhibitor of α1-adrenoceptors, does not abrogate the apoptotic effect of doxazosin or terazosin against human prostate cancer or smooth muscle cells. This suggests that the apoptotic activity of doxazosin and terazosin against prostate cells is independent of their capacity to antagonize α1-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, an in vivo efficacy trial demonstrated that doxazosin administration (at tolerated pharmacologically relevant doses) in SCID mice bearing PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. These findings demonstrate the ability of doxazosin and terazosin (but not tamsulosin) to suppress prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis without affecting cell proliferation. This evidence provides the rationale for targeting both drugs, already in clinical use and with established adverse-effect profiles, against prostatic tumors for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4550-4555
Number of pages6
JournalCancer Research
Volume60
Issue number16
StatePublished - 15 Aug 2000
Externally publishedYes

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