Background: Postpartum depression is an important cause of morbidity in mothers and children. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used self-reported measure of postpartum depression, was conceived as a one-dimensional measure. However, evidence that depressive symptoms may be experienced differentially across cultural and racial groups highlights the need to examine structural equivalence using factor analysis across populations. Variation in factor structure for the EPDS remains understudied in middle/low income countries. Methods: We examined the factor structure of the EPDS assessed 6 months postpartum in 628 Mexican women in a longitudinal Mexico City birth cohort. We performed exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the optimal fit in our sample and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the fit of two- and three-factor models previously reported in Hispanic populations. Results: The majority of participants had no more than high school education (77%), maternal age was 28 ± 5.4 years and the mean total EPDS score was 6.72 ± 5.8. Using EFA, we identified that the three-factor model provided the optimal fit, with subscales for depression, anxiety, and anhedonia. CFA confirmed that the three-factor model provided the best fit. Limitations: The study population was lower SES, potentially limiting generalizability. The single administration of the EPDS measure in the postpartum period limited our ability to assess stability over time. Conclusions: Better delineation of the multi-factorial structure of the EPDS will allow a more comprehensive understanding of psychological functioning in postpartum women and better inform diagnosis, management and policy.