Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Our Current Failures and Required Research

M. Edip Gurol, Clinton B. Wright, Scott Janis, Eric E. Smith, Elif Gokcal, Vivek Y. Reddy, José G. Merino, Jonathan C. Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is a common rhythm disorder of middle-aged to older adults that can cause ischemic strokes and systemic embolism. Lifelong use of oral anticoagulants reduces the risk of these ischemic events but increases the risk of major and clinically relevant hemorrhages. These medications also require strict compliance for efficacy, and they have nontrivial failure rates in higher-risk patients. Left atrial appendage closure is a nonpharmacological method to prevent ischemic strokes in atrial fibrillation without the need for lifelong anticoagulant use, but this procedure has the potential for complications and residual embolic events. This workshop of the Roundtable of Academia and Industry for Stroke Prevention discussed future research needed to further decrease the ischemic and hemorrhagic risks among patients with atrial fibrillation. A direct thrombin inhibitor, factor Xa inhibitors, and left atrial appendage closure are FDA-approved approaches whereas factor XIa inhibitors are currently being studied in phase 3 randomized controlled trials for stroke prevention. The benefits, risks, and shortcomings of these treatments and future research required in different high-risk patient populations are reviewed in this consensus statement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-225
Number of pages12
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • atrial fibrillation
  • factor XIa inhibitor
  • left atrial appendage closure
  • oral anticoagulant
  • stroke prevention


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