Stem Cell Mobilization Yields with Daratumumab- and Lenalidomide-Containing Quadruplet Induction Therapy in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: Findings from the MASTER and GRIFFIN Trials

Saurabh Chhabra, Natalie Callander, Nicole L. Watts, Luciano J. Costa, Bicky Thapa, Jonathan L. Kaufman, Jacob Laubach, Douglas W. Sborov, Brandi Reeves, Cesar Rodriguez, Ajai Chari, Rebecca Silbermann, Larry D. Anderson, Susan Bal, Binod Dhakal, Nitya Nathwani, Nina Shah, Eva Medvedova, Naresh Bumma, Sarah A. HolsteinCaitlin Costello, Andrzej Jakubowiak, Tanya M. Wildes, Timothy Schmidt, Robert Z. Orlowski, Kenneth H. Shain, Andrew J. Cowan, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, R. Frank Cornell, James H. Jerkins, Huiling Pei, Annelore Cortoos, Sharmila Patel, Thomas S. Lin, Saad Z. Usmani, Paul G. Richardson, Peter M. Voorhees

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8 Scopus citations

Abstract

For eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), standard of care includes induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Daratumumab as monotherapy and in combination treatment is approved across multiple lines of therapy for multiple myeloma (MM), and lenalidomide is an effective and commonly used agent for induction and maintenance therapy in MM. However, there is concern that lenalidomide and daratumumab given as induction therapy might impair mobilization of stem cells for ASCT. Therefore, we assessed stem cell mobilization in patients following frontline induction therapy in the MASTER and GRIFFIN phase 2 clinical studies by examining stem cell mobilization yields, apheresis attempts, and engraftment outcomes for patients from each study. Adult transplantation-eligible patients with NDMM received induction therapy consisting of daratumumab plus carfilzomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-KRd) for four 28-day cycles in the single-arm MASTER trial or lenalidomide/bortezomib/dexamethasone (RVd) with or without daratumumab (D) for four 21-day cycles in the randomized GRIFFIN trial, followed by stem cell mobilization and ASCT in both studies. Institutional practice differed regarding plerixafor use for stem cell mobilization; the strategies were upfront (ie, planned plerixafor use) or rescue (ie, plerixafor use only after mobilization parameters indicated failure with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] alone). Descriptive analyses were used to summarize patient characteristics, stem cell mobilization yields, and engraftment outcomes. In MASTER, 116 D-KRd recipients underwent stem cell mobilization and collection at a median of 24 days after completing induction therapy. In GRIFFIN, 175 patients (D-RVd, n = 95; RVd, n = 80) underwent mobilization at a median of 27 days after completing D-RVd induction therapy and 24 days after completing RVd induction therapy. Among those who underwent mobilization and collection, 7% (8 of 116) of D-KRd recipients, 2% (2 of 95) of D-RVd recipients, and 6% (5 of 80) of RVd recipients did not meet the center-specific minimally required CD34+ cell yield in the first mobilization attempt; however, nearly all collected sufficient stem cells for ASCT on remobilization. Among patients who underwent mobilization, plerixafor use, either upfront or as a rescue strategy, was higher in patients receiving D-KRd (97%; 112 of 116) and D-RVd (72%; 68 of 95) compared with those receiving RVd (55%; 44 of 80). The median total CD34+ cell collection was 6.0 × 106/kg (range, 2.2 to 13.9 × 106/kg) after D-KRd induction, 8.3 × 106/kg (range, 2.6 to 33.0 × 106/kg) after D-RVd induction, and 9.4 × 106/kg (range, 4.1 to 28.7 × 106/kg) after RVd induction; the median days for collection were 2, 2, and 1, respectively. Among patients who underwent mobilization, 98% (114 of 116) of D-KRd patients, 99% (94 of 95) of D-RVd patients, and 98% (78 of 80) of RVd patients underwent ASCT using median CD34+ cell doses of 3.2 × 106/kg, 4.2 × 106/kg, and 4.8 × 106/kg, respectively. The median time to neutrophil recovery was 12 days in all 3 treatment groups across the 2 trials. Because both trials used different criteria to define platelet recovery, data on platelet engraftment using the same criteria are not available. Four cycles of daratumumab- and lenalidomide-based quadruplet induction therapy had a minimal impact on stem cell mobilization and allowed predictable stem cell harvesting and engraftment in all patients who underwent ASCT. Upfront plerixafor strategy may be considered, but many patients were successfully collected with the use of G-CSF alone or rescue plerixafor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174.e1-174.e10
JournalTransplantation and Cellular Therapy
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Autologous stem cell transplantation
  • Daratumumab
  • Induction
  • Mobilization
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Stem cell

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