Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as a new clinical test, is not presently standardized. For practical reasons, each laboratory must build its own criteria. In this work, we present our standardization criteria for clinical practice, which include not only the methods for cell fixation, specimen preparation, and hybridization conditions, but mainly the definition of false-positive range and the scoring criteria of microscopic analysis. These include signal assessment, difference between individual microscopists, evaluation of specimen homogeneity, and the minimum number of scored nuclei required for a clinically reliable result. For this purpose, we analyzed by FISH 24 healthy volunteer donors, 31 patients affected by non-chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) hematological malignancies, 47 CML patients at diagnosis, and 82 CML patients during treatment for the BCR/ABL fusion. In this article, we present several quality control and assurance methods that can be useful in providing standardization of the FISH technique.