Aims: Targeting interleukin-1 (IL-1) represents a novel therapeutic approach to atherosclerosis. CANTOS demonstrated the benefits of IL-1β neutralization in patients post-myocardial infarction with residual inflammatory risk. Yet, some mouse data have shown a prominent role of IL-1α rather than IL-1β in atherosclerosis, or even a deleterious effect of IL-1 on outward arterial remodelling in atherosclerosis-susceptible mice. To shed light on these disparate results, this study investigated the effect of neutralizing IL-1α or/and IL-1β isoforms starting either early in atherogenesis or later in ApoE-/- mice with established atheroma. Methods and results: The neutralization of IL-1α or of both IL-1 isoforms impaired outward remodelling during early atherogenesis as assessed by micro-computed tomographic and histologic assessment. In contrast, the neutralization of IL-1β did not impair outward remodelling either during early atherogenesis or in mice with established lesions. Interleukin-1β inhibition promoted a slant of blood monocytes towards a less inflammatory state during atherogenesis, reduced the size of established atheromata, and increased plasma levels of IL-10 without limiting outward remodelling of brachiocephalic arteries. Conclusion: This study established a pivotal role for IL-1α in the remodelling of arteries during early experimental atherogenesis, whereas IL-1β drives inflammation during atherogenesis and the evolution of advanced atheroma in mice.
- Arterial remodelling