Soybean polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) is beneficial in liver and extrahepatic tissue injury: An update in experimental research

Ki M. Mak, Aditya C. Shekhar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) is a purified polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine extract of soybeans. This article updates PPC's beneficial effects on various forms of liver cell injury and other tissues in experimental research. PPC downregulates hepatocyte CYP2E1 expression and associated hepatotoxicity, as well as attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis, lipoprotein oxidation and steatosis in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver injury. PPC inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production, while stimulating anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in ethanol or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Kupffer cells/macrophages. It promotes M2-type macrophage polarization and metabolic reprogramming of glucose and lipid metabolism. PPC mitigates steatosis in NAFLD through inhibiting polarization of pro-inflammatory M1-type Kupffer cells, alleviating metabolic inflammation, remodeling hepatic lipid metabolism, correcting imbalances between lipogenesis and lipolysis and enhancing lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes. PPC is antifibrotic by preventing progression of alcoholic hepatic fibrosis in baboons and also prevents CCl4-induced fibrosis in rats. PPC supplementation replenishes the phosphatidylcholine content of damaged cell membranes, resulting in increased membrane fluidity and functioning. Phosphatidylcholine repletion prevents increased membrane curvature of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi and decreases sterol regulatory element binding protein-1-mediated lipogenesis, reducing steatosis. PPC remodels gut microbiota and affects hepatic lipid metabolism via the gut-hepatic-axis and also alleviates brain inflammatory responses and cognitive impairment via the gut-brain-axis. Additionally, PPC protects extrahepatic tissues from injury caused by various toxic compounds by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and membrane damage. It also stimulates liver regeneration, enhances sensitivity of cancer cells to radiotherapy/chemotherapy, and inhibits experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. PPC's beneficial effects justify it as a supportive treatment of liver disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2162-2186
Number of pages25
JournalAnatomical Record
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2024


  • Kupffer cell polarization
  • gut-brain axis
  • gut-hepatic axis
  • membrane fluidity and curvature
  • soybean polyenylphosphatidylcholine


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