This article describes a consistent pattern of the associations between source monitoring failure and clinical symptomatology in schizophrenia. The associations with positive symptoms in this sample have been reported previously, but not the associations with negative symptoms. Forty patients with schizophrenia were administered several memory tasks including free recall of lists of words, recognition and source memory. Various memory errors assumed to stem from source monitoring failure were derived. They include intrusions and recall of words from previous lists in free recall, false recognitions, and confusion with regard to the source of the stimuli. We studied the associations of these memory errors with positive symptoms and with a broad range of negative symptoms. All the memory errors were positively associated with at least one positive symptom. On the other hand, these errors were inversely associated with certain negative symptoms reflecting lack of emotion or lack of social interactions. Thus positive and negative symptomatology appear to have opposite links to the source monitoring errors observed in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive mechanisms leading to different types of source monitoring errors and possibly to the formation of positive symptoms are discussed.