Society for the advancement of blood management administrative and clinical standards for patient blood management programs. 4th edition (pediatric version)

Susan M. Goobie, Trudi Gallagher, Irwin Gross, Aryeh Shander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

Patient Blood Management is the timely application of evidence-based medical and surgical concepts designed to maintain hemoglobin concentration, optimize hemostasis, and minimize blood loss to improve patient outcomes. Conceptually similar to a “bundle” strategy, it is designed to improve clinical care using comprehensive evidence-based treatment strategies to manage patients with potential or ongoing critical bleeding, bleeding diathesis, critical anemia, and/ or a coagulopathy. Patient Blood Management includes multimodal strategies to screen, diagnose and properly treat anemia, coagulopathies and minimize bleeding, using goal-directed therapy and leverages a patient's physiologic ability to adapt to anemia while definitive treatment is undertaken. Allogeneic blood component transfusion is one traditional therapeutic modality out of many for managing blood loss and anemia and, while it may be the best choice in certain situations, other effective and more appropriate options are available and should be used in conjunction or alone. Therefore, comprehensive Patient Blood Management is the new standard of care to prevent and manage anemia and optimize hemostasis and has been recommended by the World Health Organization, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the European Society of Anaesthesiology and the Australian National Blood Authority. While there is a plethora of expert consensus and good practice guidelines published for blood component transfusion from multiple professional organizations and societies, there remains a need for more comprehensive and broader standards of patient medical management to proactively reduce the risk of exposure to allogeneic transfusions. In 2010, the Society for Advancement of Blood Management published the first comprehensive standards to address the administrative and clinical components of an effective, patient-centered Patient Blood Management program. Recognizing the need to reduce inappropriate transfusions, some professional organizations have placed their emphasis on transfusion guidelines. In contrast, the focus of the Society for Advancement of Blood Management Standard is on the centrality of the patient and the full spectrum of therapeutic strategies needed to improve clinical outcomes in patients at risk for blood loss or anemia, thereby reducing avoidable transfusions as well. The Standards are meant not to replace, but to complement transfusion guidelines by more completely addressing the need for a multi-modal clinical approach with the goal to improve patient outcomes. Compared to adult programs, Pediatric Patient Blood Management programs are currently not commonly accepted as standard of care for pediatric patients. This is partly due to the fact that, until recently, there was a paucity of robust evidence-based literature and expert consensus guidelines on pediatric PBM. Managing pediatric bleeding and blood product transfusion presents a unique set of challenges. The main goal of transfusion is to correct or avoid imminent inadequate oxygen carrying capacity caused by inadequate red blood cell mass. Determining when, what, and how much to transfuse can be difficult. Neonates, infants, children, and adolescents each have specific considerations based on age, weight, physiology, and pharmacology. In this edition of Pediatric Anaesthesia we provide, in abbreviated format, the 4th edition of the Administrative and Clinical Standards for Patient Blood Management; Pediatric Version, first published in 2010 with the addition of a new Pediatric section in 2016. These Standards provide guidance for implementing a comprehensive Pediatric Patient Blood Management program at both pediatric and adult medical institutions. While every hospital may not be equipped to have a dedicated Pediatric Patient Blood Management program, this document highlights important universal clinical strategies that can be implemented to optimize pediatric bleeding management and minimize allogeneic blood product exposure through the use of multi-modal therapeutic strategies that have their central emphasis on the patient rather than the transfusion. Important strategies include: treatment of preoperative anemia, standardized transfusion algorithms, the use of restrictive transfusion thresholds, goal-directed therapy based on point of care and viscoelastic testing, antifibrinolytics, and avoidance of hemodilution and hypothermia as supported by evidence. For the full version, please go to https://www.sabm.org/publications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-236
Number of pages6
JournalPaediatric Anaesthesia
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • anemia
  • guidelines
  • indicators
  • iron deficiency
  • patient blood management
  • preoperative assessment
  • standards
  • transfusion

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