Smoking patterns and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx: A case- control study in Uruguay

E. De Stefani, P. Boffetta, F. Oreggia, M. Mendilaharsu, H. Deneo-Pellegrini

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32 Scopus citations


A case-control study of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was conducted in Uruguay, between 1992 and 1996. 425 patients microscopically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx were frequently matched on age, residence, and urban/rural status with 427 hospitalised controls. The study was restricted to males. Smokers of black tobacco cigarettes were associated with an increased risk of 12.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6-19.4), when compared with non-smokers after fitting a model which included the matching variables, birthplace, education, and total alcohol consumption. Lifelong smokers of handrolled cigarettes displayed an odds ratio (OR) of 8.7 (95% CI 5.6-13.4), compared with non- smokers. When smokers were excluded from the calculations, the OR for smokers of black tobacco cigarettes was 3.0 (95% CI 2.0-4.6), compared with smokers of blond tobacco cigarettes, after controlling for the same variables mentioned above, plus pack-years, years since stopping, and filter use. Hand- rolling appears to be less important than smoking black tobacco in this study (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.5). Thus, smoking black tobacco cigarettes appears to be an important habit in oral and pharyngeal carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-346
Number of pages7
JournalOral Oncology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Black tobacco
  • Bland tobacco
  • Hand-rolling
  • Oral cancer


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