Small extracellular organelles such as exosomes and microvesicles are currently being studied as a novel way to track tumor progression, pseudoprogression, and treatment monitoring. Their role in intercellular communication shows potential in the treatment of even the most formidable cancers. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignancy of the brain and has no known cure. A large emphasis has been placed on trying to improve the prognosis of this aggressive primary brain tumor. It has recently been discovered that small extracellular vesicles, mainly exosomes and microvesicles, play a role in the cell signaling process that leads to uncontrollable cell growth indicative of a tumor state. Here we describe the role of exosomes and microvesicles as a tumor biomarker for tracking the progression of different types of cancer, with an emphasis on GBM.