Simplifying the drug provocation test in non-immediate hypersensitivity reactions to amoxicillin in children: The experience of a tertiary care allergy unit

Giulia Liccioli, Mattia Giovannini, Jean Christoph Caubet, Simona Barni, Lucrezia Sarti, Paola Parronchi, Manuela Capone, Leonardo Tomei, Francesca Mori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Mild non-immediate reactions (NIR) to beta-lactams (βLs) are the most common manifestation of adverse drug reactions in children, and the drug provocation test (DPT) remains the gold standard for diagnosis. However, there are still controversies about the protocol that should be used, especially regarding the administration of doses and the DPT length. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a pediatric population with a history of mild NIR to amoxicillin (AMX) or to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMX/CL) who underwent a diagnostic workup including a DPT with the culprit drug, to understand if a graded DPT or, instead, a single full dose could be the most appropriate way of administration in clinical practice. Methods: The data of children were retrospectively analyzed for a 5-year period, with demographic and clinical characteristics collected. We reported the allergy workup and the results of the DPT performed with the administration of incremental doses and a prolonged DPT at home for a total of 5 days. Results: Three hundred fifty-four patients were included. Overall, 23/354 (6.5%) DPTs were positive: 11/23 patients showed a reaction after 2–8 h after the last dose on the 1st or 2nd day (1 reacted 30 min after the last dose), 1/23 reacted with urticaria 30 min after the first dose, 11/23 reacted at home on the 5th day of the DPT. Conclusion: This paper indirectly suggests that a single therapeutic dose administered on the 1st day of a DPT could be safe in the diagnostic workup of mild NIR to AMX/CL. Moreover, this could be less time-consuming as patients would spend less time in the hospital, also considering the public health restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13809
JournalPediatric Allergy and Immunology
Volume33
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • beta-lactams
  • children
  • drug allergy
  • drug provocation test
  • incremental dose
  • non-immediate reactions

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