Shoulder dystocia: Predictors and outcome. A five-year review

Susan J. Gross, Jerry Shime, Dan Farine

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

133 Scopus citations


Shoulder dystocia is an uncommon complication of delivery with a high morbidity rate. Ninety-one cases were coded for shoulder dystocia at the Toronto General Hospital from 1980 through 1985. True shoulder dystocia was found in 24 cases, an incidence of 0.23%. There was no significant difference in average weight and percentage of macrosomia between cases of true shoulder dystocia and those merely coded as such. True shoulder dystocia was associated with a neonatal morbidity rate of 42%, consisting of a respiratory arrest and neurological and orthopedic damage. Fundal pressure, in the absence of other maneuvers, resulted in a 77% complication rate and was strongly associated with orthopedic and neurologic damage. Delivery of the posterior shoulder and the corkscrew maneuver were associated with good fetal outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)334-336
Number of pages3
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1987
Externally publishedYes


  • Shoulder dystocia
  • complications
  • delivery maneuvers
  • obstetrics


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