Sex-Related Differences in the Prevalence and Prognostic Value of the Academic Research Consortium for High Bleeding Risk Criteria

Matteo Nardin, Davide Cao, Roxana Mehran, Rishi Chandiramani, Mauro Chiarito, Samantha Sartori, Hanbo Qiu, Zhongjie Zhang, Ekta Golani, Johny Nicolas, Usman Baber, George Dangas, Giuseppe De Luca, Giulio G. Stefanini, Joseph Sweeny, Samin K. Sharma, Annapoorna Kini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Female patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention are often older and present with a higher burden of comorbidities, which in turn increases their risk of adverse events, including bleeding complications. The Academic Research Consortium (ARC) have proposed a list of clinical criteria to define high bleeding risk (HBR). Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and predictive value of the ARC-HBR criteria according to sex in a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods: All consecutive patients receiving coronary stenting between 2014 and 2017 at a tertiary-care center were defined as HBR if they fulfilled at least 1 major or 2 minor ARC-HBR criteria. The primary bleeding end point was the composite of periprocedural in-hospital or postdischarge bleeding up to 1 year. Individual components of the primary bleeding end point, all-cause mortality, and myocardial infarction were also evaluated. Results: Of the total 9623 patients, 6979 (72.5%) were male and 2644 (27.5%) female. The prevalence of HBR was significantly higher in females compared with males (56.5% versus 39.9%, P<0.001). With regard to the individual criteria, moderate/severe anemia and moderate chronic kidney disease were more common in females, while oral anticoagulation and mild anemia were more frequent among males. The presence of HBR was associated with an increased risk of bleeding in both females (10.0% versus 4.4%; hazard ratio, 2.57 [95% CI, 1.80-3.67]; P<0.001) and males (8.7% versus 2.9%; hazard ratio, 3.19 [95% CI, 2.50-4.08]; P<0.001)(pinteraction=0.344). The ARC-HBR criteria associated with the highest bleeding risk at 1 year were severe/end-stage chronic kidney disease and thrombocytopenia in females, and moderate/severe anemia in males. Conclusions: In a real-world cohort of percutaneous coronary intervention patients, females were more often at HBR than males. The prognostic value of the ARC-HBR definition was consistent between female and male patients, despite sex-related differences in the prevalence and bleeding risk associated with individual ARC-HBR criteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E010392
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2021


  • bleeding
  • percutaneous coronary intervention
  • sex
  • women


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