Sex differences in Alzheimer's disease: Understanding the molecular impact

Carlos A. Toro, Larry Zhang, Jiqing Cao, Dongming Cai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that presents with cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbance. Approximately 5.5 million people in the United States live with AD, most of whom are over the age of 65 with two-thirds being woman. There have been major advancements over the last decade or so in the understanding of AD neuropathological changes and genetic involvement. However, studies of sex impact in AD have not been adequately integrated into the investigation of disease development and progression. It becomes indispensable to acknowledge in both basic science and clinical research studies the importance of understanding sex-specific differences in AD pathophysiology and pathogenesis, which could guide future effort in the discovery of novel targets for AD. Here, we review the latest and most relevant literature on this topic, highlighting the importance of understanding sex dimorphism from a molecular perspective and its association to clinical trial design and development in AD research field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-207
Number of pages14
JournalBrain Research
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2019


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Molecular impact
  • Pathogenesis
  • Risk factors
  • Sex differences


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