In high-income countries, ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in women and men, accounting for more than 20% of deaths in both sexes. However, women are less likely to receive guideline-recommended percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) than men. Women undergoing PCI have poorer unadjusted outcomes because they are older and have greater comorbidity than men, but uncertainty remains whether sex affects outcome after these differences in clinical characteristics are considered. In this paper, we review recent published evidence comparing outcomes between men and women undergoing PCI. We focus on the sex differences in PCI outcomes in different scenarios: acute coronary syndromes, stable angina and complex lesions, including the approach of left main coronary artery. We also review how gender is considered in recent guidelines and offer a common clinical scenario to illustrate the contemporary management strategies an interventional cardiologist should consider when performing PCI on a female patient.
- Percutaneous coronary intervention