Severe hypertriglyceridemia: Existing and emerging therapies

Waqas A. Malick, Ron Do, Robert S. Rosenson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG), defined as a triglyceride (TG) concentration ≥ 500 mg/dL (≥ 5.7 mmol/L) is an important risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Although lifestyle, some medications, and certain conditions such as diabetes may lead to HTG, sHTG results from a combination of major and minor genetic defects in proteins that regulate TG lipolysis. Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare disorder caused by complete loss of function in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) or LPL activating proteins due to two homozygous recessive traits or compound heterozygous traits. Multifactorial chylomicronemia syndrome (MCS) and sHTG are due to the accumulation of rare heterozygous variants and polygenic defects that predispose individuals to sHTG phenotypes. Until recently, treatment of sHTG focused on lifestyle interventions, control of secondary factors, and nonselective pharmacotherapies that had modest TG-lowering efficacy and no corresponding reductions in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. Genetic discoveries have allowed for the development of novel pathway-specific therapeutics targeting LPL modulating proteins. New targets directed towards inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) offer far more efficacy in treating the various phenotypes of sHTG and opportunities to reduce the risk of acute pancreatitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108544
JournalPharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume251
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • Angiopoietin-like 3 protein
  • Angiopoietin-like protein 4
  • Apolipoprotein C-III
  • Chylomicrons
  • Lipoprotein lipase
  • Triglyceride rich lipoproteins
  • Triglycerides
  • Very low-density lipoprotein

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