Sequence and structural variation in a human genome uncovered by short-read, massively parallel ligation sequencing using two-base encoding

Kevin Judd McKernan, Heather E. Peckham, Gina L. Costa, Stephen F. McLaughlin, Yutao Fu, Eric F. Tsung, Christopher R. Clouser, Cisyla Duncan, Jeffrey K. Ichikawa, Clarence C. Lee, Zheng Zhang, Swati S. Ranade, Eileen T. Dimalanta, Fiona C. Hyland, Tanya D. Sokolsky, Lei Zhang, Andrew Sheridan, Haoning Fu, Cynthia L. Hendrickson, Bin LiLev Kotler, Jeremy R. Stuart, Joel A. Malek, Jonathan M. Manning, Alena A. Antipova, Damon S. Perez, Michael P. Moore, Kathleen C. Hayashibara, Michael R. Lyons, Robert E. Beaudoin, Brittany E. Coleman, Michael W. Laptewicz, Adam E. Sannicandro, Michael D. Rhodes, Rajesh K. Gottimukkala, Shan Yang, Vineet Bafna, Ali Bashir, Andrew MacBride, Can Alkan, Jeffrey M. Kidd, Evan E. Eichler, Martin G. Reese, Francisco M. De La Vega, Alan P. Blanchard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

402 Scopus citations


We describe the genome sequencing of an anonymous individual of African origin using a novel ligation-based sequencing assay that enables a unique form of error correction that improves the raw accuracy of the aligned reads to >99.9%, allowing us to accurately call SNPs with as few as two reads per allele. We collected several billion mate-paired reads yielding ∼18x haploid coverage of aligned sequence and close to 300x clone coverage. Over 98% of the reference genome is covered with at least one uniquely placed read, and 99.65% is spanned by at least one uniquely placed matepaired clone. We identify over 3.8 million SNPs, 19% of which are novel. Mate-paired data are used to physically resolve haplotype phases of nearly two-thirds of the genotypes obtained and produce phased segments of up to 215 kb. We detect 226,529 intra-read indels, 5590 indels between mate-paired reads, 91 inversions, and four gene fusions. We use a novel approach for detecting indels between mate-paired reads that are smaller than the standard deviation of the insert size of the library and discover deletions in common with those detected with our intra-read approach. Dozens of mutations previously described in OMIM and hundreds of nonsynonymous single-nucleotide and structural variants in genes previously implicated in disease are identified in this individual. There is more genetic variation in the human genome still to be uncovered, and we provide guidance for future surveys in populations and cancer biopsies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1527-1541
Number of pages15
JournalGenome Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes


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