Secondhand smoking and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high incidence Region, Kashmir, India: A case-control-observational study

Rumaisa Rafiq, Idrees Ayoub Shah, Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Mohd Maqbool Lone, Farhad Islami, Paolo Boffetta, Nazir Ahmad Dar

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19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Studies have associated secondhand smoking (SHS) with cancers of the lung, larynx, and pharynx. Only a few studies have examined the association between SHS and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the findings are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between SHS and risk of ESCC in a casecontrol study in Kashmir, where the incidence of ESCC is high. Werecruited 703 histopathologically confirmedESCCcases and 1664 hospital-based controls individually matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Among never-tobacco users, the ORs for the association between SHS and ESCC risk were above unity with ever exposure to SHS (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 0.43-4.02) and exposure to SHS for >14 h/wk (median value) (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 0.75-20.65). In the analysis of data from all participants, the OR (95% CI) for the association between SHS and ESCC was (OR=1.02; 95% CI, 0.53-1.93) for SHS ≥14 h/wk and (OR=1.91; 95% CI, 0.75-4.89) for SHS >14 h/wk in the models adjusted for tobacco use and several other potential confounding factors. We found an indication of increased risk of ESCC associated with exposure to SHS. Studies with larger numbers of SHS-exposed never tobacco users are required to further examine this association.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2340
JournalMedicine (United States)
Volume95
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

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