Stent failure remains the major drawback to the use of coronary stents as a revascularization strategy. Recent advances in imaging have substantially improved our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these occurrences, which have in common numerous clinical risk factors and mechanical elements at the time of stent implantation. In-stent restenosis remains a common clinical problem despite numerous improvements in-stent design and polymer coatings over the past 2 decades. It generates significant health care cost and is associated with an increased risk of death and rehospitalization. Stent thrombosis causes abrupt closure of the stented artery and therefore carries a high risk of myocardial infarction and death. This Society for Cardiovascular Angiography & Interventions (SCAI) Expert Consensus Statement suggests updated practical algorithmic approaches to in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. A pragmatic outline of assessment and management of patients presenting with stent failure is presented. A new SCAI classification that is time-sensitive with mechanistic implications of in-stent restenosis is proposed. Emphasis is placed on frequent use of intracoronary imaging and assessment of timing to determine the precise etiology because that information is crucial to guide selection of the best treatment option. SCAI recommends image-guided coronary stenting at the time of initial implantation to minimize the occurrence of stent failure. When in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis are encountered, imaging should be strongly considered to optimize the subsequent approach.
|Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions
|Published - 1 Jul 2023
- coronary stenting
- in-stent restenosis
- major adverse cardiovascular events
- stent thrombosis
- target vessel failure