SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and associated outcomes: Results from an ongoing prospective cohort

Nina M. Molenaar, Anna Sophie Rommel, Lotje de Witte, Siobhan M. Dolan, Whitney Lieb, Erona Ibroci, Sophie Ohrn, Jezelle Lynch, Christina Capuano, Daniel Stadlbauer, Florian Krammer, Lauren B. Zapata, Rachel I. Brody, Victor J. Pop, Rebecca H. Jessel, Rhoda S. Sperling, Omara Afzal, Frederieke Gigase, Roy Missall, Teresa JanevicJoanne Stone, Elizabeth A. Howell, Veerle Bergink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global health threat, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Questions remain about how SARS-CoV-2 impacts pregnant individuals and their children. Objective: To expand our understanding of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes, regardless of symptomatology, by using serological tests to measure IgG antibody levels. Methods: The Generation C Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study conducted at the Mount Sinai Health System. All pregnant individuals receiving obstetrical care at the Mount Sinai Healthcare System from 20 April 2020 onwards are eligible for participation. For the current analysis, we included participants who had given birth to a liveborn singleton infant on or before 22 September 2020. For each woman, we tested the latest prenatal blood sample available to establish seropositivity using a SARS-CoV-2 serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, RT-PCR testing was performed on a nasopharyngeal swab taken during labour. Pregnancy outcomes of interest (i.e., gestational age at delivery, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar scores, maternal and neonatal intensive care unit admission, and length of neonatal hospital stay) and covariates were extracted from medical records. Excluding individuals who tested RT-PCR positive at delivery, we conducted crude and adjusted regression models to compare antibody positive with antibody negative individuals at delivery. We stratified analyses by race/ethnicity to examine potential effect modification. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence based on IgG measurement was 16.4% (95% confidence interval 13.7, 19.3; n=116). Twelve individuals (1.7%) were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive at delivery. Seropositive individuals were generally younger, more often Black or Hispanic, and more often had public insurance and higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared with seronegative individuals. None of the examined pregnancy outcomes differed by seropositivity, overall or stratified by race/ethnicity. Conclusion: Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 without RT-PCR positivity at delivery (suggesting that infection occurred earlier during pregnancy) was not associated with selected adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes among live births in a cohort sample from New York City.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-475
Number of pages10
JournalPaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • infection
  • neonatal outcomes
  • pregnancy outcomes
  • seroepidemiologic studies


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