Salt and Water: A Review of Hypernatremia

Niralee Patel, Dhwanil Patel, Samira S. Farouk, Joshua L. Rein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Serum sodium disorders are generally a marker of water balance in the body. Thus, hypernatremia is most often caused by an overall deficit of total body water. Other unique circumstances may lead to excess salt, without an impact on the body's total water volume. Hypernatremia is commonly acquired in both the hospital and community. As hypernatremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, treatment should be initiated promptly. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology and management of the main types of hypernatremia, which can be categorized as either a loss of water or gain of sodium that can be mediated by renal or extrarenal mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-109
Number of pages8
JournalAdvances in Kidney Disease and Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • AQP2
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Hypernatremia
  • Kidney
  • Renal
  • Salt
  • Sodium
  • Vasopressin
  • Water


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