Safety and Immunogenicity of a Newcastle Disease Virus Vector-Based SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Candidate, AVX/COVID-12-HEXAPRO (Patria), in Pigs

Jesús Horacio Lara-Puente, Juan Manuel Carreño, Weina Sun, Alejandro Suárez-Martínez, Luis Ramírez-Martínez, Francisco Quezada-Monroy, Georgina Paz de la Rosa, Rosalía Vigueras-Moreno, Gagandeep Singh, Oscar Rojas-Martínez, Héctor Elías Chagoya-Cortés, David Sarfati-Mizrahi, Ernesto Soto-Priante, Constantino López-Macías, Florian Krammer, Felipa Castro-Peralta, Peter Palese, Adolfo García-Sastre, Bernardo Lozano-Dubernard

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23 Scopus citations


Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were developed in record time and show excellent efficacy and effectiveness against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, currently approved vaccines cannot meet the global demand. In addition, none of the currently used vaccines is administered intranasally to potentially induce mucosal immunity. Here, we tested the safety and immunogenicity of a second-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that includes a stabilized spike antigen and can be administered intranasally. The vaccine is based on a live Newcastle disease virus vector expressing a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein stabilized in a prefusion conformation with six beneficial proline substitutions (AVX/COVID-12-HEXAPRO; Patria). Immunogenicity testing in the pig model showed that both intranasal and intramuscular application of the vaccine as well as a combination of the two induced strong serum neutralizing antibody responses. Furthermore, substantial reactivity to B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 spike variants was detected. Finally, no adverse reactions were found in the experimental animals at any dose level or delivery route. These results indicate that the experimental vaccine AVX/COVID-12-HEXAPRO (Patria) is safe and highly immunogenic in the pig model. IMPORTANCE Several highly efficacious vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been developed and are used in the population. However, the current production capacity cannot meet the global demand. Therefore, additional vaccines—especially ones that can be produced locally and at low cost—are urgently needed. This work describes preclinical testing of a SARSCoV-2 vaccine candidate which meets these criteria.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere01908-21
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus vaccine
  • HexaPro
  • NDV
  • Newcastle disease virus
  • Pig model
  • Pigs
  • Prolines
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Spike
  • Vaccine


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