Role of the influenza virus nonstructural 1 protein in evasion of immunity

Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Thomas M. Moran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The influenza virus nonstructural (NS)1 protein is a potent immune modulator that has multiple inhibitory functions in the infected cells. The NS1 protein blocks the production of interferon in infected cells by multiple actions, including the inhibition of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3, and the cytoplasmic RNA sensor, retinoic acid-inducible gene-1. Additionally, our recent studies have demonstrated that the NS1 protein of influenza virus is able to inhibit both innate and adaptive immunity by targeting a very specific set of genes and proteins in dendritic cells (DCs). These genes are crucial for the activation of DCs and facilitate their interaction with T cells for the initiation of antiviral immune responses in the infected host. Thus, the NS1 protein is a dual-immune modulator that affects DC function profoundly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-399
Number of pages11
JournalFuture Virology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2007


  • 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase
  • Antigen-presenting cells
  • Dendritic cells
  • IFN-inducible protein of 10 kDa
  • IFN-inducible protein of 56 kDa
  • IFN-regulatory factor
  • IFN-α receptor 1
  • Myxovirus resistance protein A
  • Nonstructural protein 1
  • Nuclear factor-κB
  • Quantitative real-time PCR
  • Retinoic acid-inducible gene I
  • T helper
  • Toll-like receptor
  • Tumor necrosis factor


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