Allergic diseases, including asthma, food allergy, eczema, and allergic rhinitis, are common diseases increasing in prevalence. Allergy, a failure of immune tolerance to innocuous environmental allergens, is characterized by allergen-specific immune responses, including IgE antibodies and T helper and T follicular helper cells producing type 2 cytokines. Despite the central role of adaptive immunity in pathophysiology of allergy, there is a growing body of evidence indicating an important role for the innate immune system in allergic disease. In this review, we focus on epithelial–mononuclear phagocyte communication in the control of allergy and tolerance. We discuss studies on early life environmental exposures and allergy susceptibility, and the evidence for innate training of mononuclear phagocytes as the mechanistic link between exposure and health or disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-53
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • IgE
  • T2
  • allergy
  • cytokine
  • dendritic cell
  • macrophage
  • monocyte


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