Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people globally. Virus infection requires the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Although studies have demonstrated anti-spike and-RBD antibodies to be protective in animal models, and convalescent plasma as a promising therapeutic option, little is known about immunoglobulin isotypes capable of blocking infection. Methods: We studied spike- A nd RBD-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in convalescent and acute plasma/serum samples using a multiplex bead assay. We also determined virus neutralization activities in plasma and serum samples, and purified immunoglobulin fractions using a vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus assay. Results: Spike- A nd RBD-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG1, and IgA1 were produced by all or nearly all subjects at variable levels and detected early after infection. All samples displayed neutralizing activity. Regression analyses revealed that IgM and IgG1 contributed most to neutralization, consistent with IgM and IgG fractions' neutralization potency. IgA also exhibited neutralizing activity, but with lower potency. Conclusion: IgG, IgM, and IgA are critical components of convalescent plasma used for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
- antibody isotypes
- convalescent plasma