Role of Drain Placement in Major Hepatectomy: A NSQIP Analysis of Procedure-Targeted Hepatectomy Cases

Chaya Shwaartz, Adam C. Fields, Jeffrey J. Aalberg, Celia M. Divino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The value of drain placement in hepatic surgery has not been conclusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether drain placement during major hepatectomy was associated with negative postoperative outcomes and whether its placement reduced the need for secondary procedures. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Procedure-Targeted Hepatectomy Database was used to identify patients who underwent major hepatectomy. Patients were divided into two groups based on the placement of a drain during the procedure. Propensity score-matched cohorts of patients who underwent major hepatic resection with or without drain placement were created accounting for patient characteristics. The primary outcomes were 30-day postoperative complications including bile leak, post-hepatectomy liver failure, and invasive intervention as well as mortality and readmission. Results: A total of 1005 patients underwent major hepatectomy; 500 patients (49.8 %) had prophylactic drains placed at the conclusion of the procedure. Drain placement was associated with any complication (p < 0.001), blood transfusion (p < 0.001), renal insufficiency (p = 0.02), bile leak (p < 0.001), invasive intervention (p = 0.02), length of stay (p = 0.001), and readmission (p < 0.001). In the matched cohort, drain placement was associated with any complication (p < 0.001), blood transfusion (p < 0.001), superficial surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.028), bile leak (p < 0.001), and longer length of stay (0.03). In addition, placement of a prophylactic drain did not decrease the rate of postoperative bile leaks requiring therapeutic intervention (p = 0.21) (Table 2). In multivariate analysis, drain placement was independently associated with any complication (p < 0.001), blood transfusion (p = 0.02), bile leak (p < 0.001), invasive intervention (p = 0.011), superficial surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.039), and hospital readmission (p = 0.005) (Table 3). Placement of a prophylactic drain did not decrease the rate of postoperative bile leaks requiring therapeutic intervention (p = 0.15). Conclusion: Drain placement after major hepatectomy may lead to increased postoperative complications including bile leak, superficial surgical site infection, and hospital length of stay and does not decrease the need for secondary procedures in patients with bile leaks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1110-1118
Number of pages9
JournalWorld Journal of Surgery
Volume41
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2017

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