Risks of alcohol and drug use disorders in prostate cancer survivors: a national cohort study

Casey Crump, Pär Stattin, James D. Brooks, Jan Sundquist, Alexis C. Edwards, Weiva Sieh, Kristina Sundquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Prostate cancer (PC) survivors may potentially use substances to cope with psychological distress or poorly controlled physical symptoms. Little is known, however, about the long-term risks of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or drug use disorders in men with PC. Methods: A national cohort study was conducted in Sweden of 180-189 men diagnosed with PC between 1998 and 2017 and 1 801 890 age-matched population-based control men. AUD and drug use disorders were ascertained from nationwide records through 2018. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) while adjusting for sociodemographic factors and prior psychiatric disorders. Subanalyses examined differences by PC treatment from 2005 to 2017. Results: Men with high-risk PC had increased risks of both AUD (adjusted HR = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 1.57) and drug use disorders (adjusted HR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.67 to 2.24). Their AUD risk was highest in the first year and was no longer significantly elevated 5 years after PC diagnosis, whereas their drug use disorders risk remained elevated 10 years after PC diagnosis (adjusted HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.45 to 3.52), particularly opioid use disorder (adjusted HR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.61 to 5.84). Those treated only with androgen-deprivation therapy had the highest risks of AUD (adjusted HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.62 to 2.25) and drug use disorders (adjusted HR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.70 to 2.92). Low- or intermediate-risk PC was associated with modestly increased risks of AUD (adjusted HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.46) and drug use disorders (adjusted HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.34). Conclusions: In this large cohort, men with PC had significantly increased risks of both AUD and drug use disorders, especially those with high-risk PC and treated only with androgen-deprivation therapy. PC survivors need long-term psychosocial support and timely detection and treatment of AUD and drug use disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberpkad046
JournalJNCI Cancer Spectrum
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023


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