Risk factors for nicotine dependence in Chinese patients with lung cancer

Fen Gu, Yayi He, Yanjun Mao, Shiwen Lu, Chao Zhao, Xuefei Li, Caicun Zhou, Fred R. Hirsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Smoking is a poor prognostic factor for lung cancer. Nicotine dependence remains the major cause of failure of smoking cessation. We investigated the risk factors for nicotine dependence in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Eligible patients were identified from November 2014 to February 2015. Age, marital status, educational level, annual household income, occupation, histology of lung cancer, tumor stage, smoking status, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) level, drive gene mutations, sleep quality, and patient personality were assessed. Physical nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Results: In total, 202 smokers were included in this study. Univariate analysis showed that marital status and pain were significantly correlated with nicotine dependence. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that age at the initiation of smoking, attempts to quit, NSE level, and sleep quality were significantly correlated with FTND scores. Conclusions: Pain, more attempts to quit, and poorer sleep quality were significantly associated with nicotine dependence. These risk factors could help to prevent smoking in Chinese patients with lung cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-397
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Chinese patients
  • Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence
  • Lung cancer
  • neuron-specific enolase
  • nicotine dependence
  • smoking


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