Objectives/Hypothesis: To determine the rate and predictors of receiving multiple tympanostomy tube (TT) placements in children. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies reporting the risk factors for receiving repeat TT (r-TT) placements in children with chronic otitis media with effusion or recurrent acute otitis media. These articles were systematically reviewed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Results: Twenty-one studies involving a total of 290,897 children were included. Among all patients, 24.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 18.2%–29.9%) underwent ≥2 TT placements and 7.5% (95% CI, 5.7%–9.4%) underwent ≥3 TT placements. Craniofacial disease (odds ratio (OR) 5.13, 95% CI, 1.57–16.74) was the strongest predictor of r-TT. Younger age at initial TT placement and shorter TT retention time were also significantly associated with r-TT. Receipt of primary adenoidectomy with initial TT placement was associated with decreased odds of r-TT (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39–0.55). Long-term tubes also significantly reduced the odds of r-TT (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.17–0.44). Conclusions: About 1 in 4 children receiving TT will receive at least one repeat set of TT and about 1 in 14 will receive multiple repeat sets. Concurrent adenoidectomy and long-term tubes reduced the incidence of r-TT. Younger patients and those with earlier extrusion of the initial set are at increased risk for repeat surgery. The identification of these risk factors may improve parental counseling and identify patients who might benefit from closer follow-up. Level of Evidence: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E2363–E2370, 2021.
- Otits media
- tympanostomy tube